Chi-Squared Formulas Vocab The Types of Error Be Confident
What is a Goodness of fit test?
It is used to help determine whether a population has a certain hypothesized distribution, expressed as percents of population members falling into various outcome categories.
n - 1
Degrees of freedom for chi-squared goodness of fit.
What is a Observational Study?
A study that gathers data without trying to influence the responses.
What is the Type 1 Error?
When we reject the Null Hypothesis when in fact the Null Hypothesis is true.
What is robust?
A confidence interval or significance test is called _____ if the confidence level or P-vaule does not change very much when the assumptions of the procedure are violated.
1) SRS
2) N*P > 10 and N(1-P) > 10
3) All individual expected counts are at least 1 and no more than 20% of the expected counts are less than 5
Name the conditions of the chi-squared
Expected Count
(Row Total * Column Total)/Table Total
What is a Random Phenomenon?
A phenomenon has outcomes that we cannot predict but that nonetheless have a regular distribution in very many repetitions.
What is the Type 2 Error?
When we accept the Null Hypothesis when in the Alternative Hypothesis is true.
What is the margin of error?
The _____ of error shows how close the estimate tends to be to the unknown parameter in repeated random sampling.
What is the chi-square statistic?
It is a measure of how far the observed counts in a two-way table from the expected counts.
The degrees of freedom for Chi-Square Test of independence.
(r - 1) * (c - 1)
What is Replication?
A third principle of statistical design of experiments that repeats each treatment on a large enough number of experimental units or subjects to allow the systematic effects of the treatments to be seen.
What is Type 1 Error?
The probability of a type ___ error is equal to α, the significance level.
What is the Confidence level?
95% of all possible samples of a given size from this population will result in an interval that captures the unknown parameter.
What is a chi-square test of homogeneity?
This test is applied to a single categorical variable from two different populations.
Slope of the true regression line.
b +- (t*)SE{b}
What is the Least-Squares regression Line
The line of y on x is the line that makes the sum of the squares of the vertical distances of the data point from the line as small as possible.
What is Type 2 Error?
We call the probability of a type ___ error β.
The confidence level decreases.
The margin of error gets smaller when the sample size n increases and ...
What is a chi-square test for independence?
This test is applied when you have two categorical variables from a single population.
Confidence interval for the mean response.
y-hat +- (t*) SE{μ-hat}
What is Simple random Sample?
An abbreviation of SRS
What is the power of the test?
The probability of correctly rejecting a false hypothesis
What is Random?
One of the conditions for constructing a confidence interval is that the data come from a well-designed sample or randomized experiment.

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