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History of the Universe Nervous System Sensory Systems Endocrine Miscellaneous
100
Permian and Cretaceous.
What are the two big extinctions we covered in class?
100
a neuron carries signals from receptors to the brain and from the brain to effectors in the form of action potentials; they are made up of a cell body, dendrites, axon
What is a neuron
100
Sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami
What are the 5 types of taste?
100
Hormones
How does the the endocrine system send signals?
100
Annelids (wermz)
What type of animal does Dr. Lindsay work with?
200
A big rock like formation that is really layers of bacteria, which also capture sediment. It contains cyanobacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, and anaerobic bacteria (in descending order)
What is a stromatolite?
200
chemical synapses transfer action potentials indirectly, through a second messenger. They are the most common synapse
Define/what is a chemical synapse
200
Compound eye: made up of many ommatidia; arthropods
Camera eye: has a lens, pigments, rods and cones, optic nerve; cephalopods
What are the different types of eyes/ where can you find them (what types of orgs)?
200
Endrocrine- slow, general targets, lasts longer
Nervous- fast, specific targets, don't last long
What are the major differences between the endocrine and the nervous systems?
200
Na+, Ca2+, K+ (also sometimes Cl-)
What are the 3 most common types of ions used in pretty much every function within an organism?
300
Surface area: Volume
What is the most biologically important ratio there is
300
EPSP: excitatory post synaptic potential, causes a graded potential that depolarizes the cell and increases with increasing stimulus
IPSP: hyper polarizing for the cell, can offset when combined with an EPSP at the same time
What's the difference between EPSP and IPSP
300
Ionotropic: fast, uses gated ion channels and doesn't require a second messenger. Ex.) mechanoreceptors like auditory or hair cells
Metabotropic: slow, requires a second messenger (like cAMP or G proteins), generated through the metabolism. Ex.) olfactory receptors
Both: used in chemoreception and both can be used in gustation
Define the difference between ionotropic and metabotropic signal transduction.
300
Pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland (master gland)
Name the main glands involved in the endocrine system and what is the master gland?
300
ciliated excretory tubules "first little kidneys", flame bulbs
What is a protonephridia, and what is found at its end?
400
we have a pic
Make a table with three columns: bacteria, archaea, and eukarya, and four rows: nuclear envelope, membrane enclosed organelles, peptidoglycan in the cell wall, and circular chromosome. Fill in whether or not the attribute is present or absent.
400
We will observe
Draw and explain an action potential.
400
exteroreceptors, interoreceptors, electroreceptors, thermoreceptors, stretch receptors, 7TM, etc.
Give examples of types of receptors and what they do
400
Polypeptides, steroids, and amines
What are the three classes of hormones?
400
N, P, iron
What are the three common limiting nutrients in the environment?
500
Lynn Margulis proposed this theory, which was on the origin of eukaryotic cells. It outlined that mitochondria evolved from small, free living bacteria, its nucleus evolved from simpler prokaryotic DNA and the flagella from symbiotic spirochetes. Chloroplasts arose from free living cyanobacteria. Other similarities include the similarity in size between ribosomes of prokaryotes and ribosomes of mitochondria and chloroplasts
What is the endosymbiotic theory and who proposed it?
500
We will observe
Draw and explain what follows an action potential when it arrives at the cleft between nerve cells
500
we will observe
Describe how you get from stimulus to response
500
The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine. These cells combine iodine and the amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4. T3 and T4 are then released into the blood stream and are transported throughout the body where they control metabolism
What are the hormones that are active in your thyroid and what is their significance?
500
chemical signals from nearby cells can cause other cells to alter their gene expression, it also contributes to differentiation
What is induction?




Continued SMS 201 Final

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