Ch 13


M2 Chapter 3 Ch 3 - Ch 4 Ch 4 - 5 Ch 5 - 13 Ch 13
What are 'lack of capable guardians, suitable targets and motivated offenders'?
Routine activities theory contends that these three elements must be present for crime to occur (and should be considered when trying to reduce or prevent delinquent acts by juveniles)
What are 'choice' and 'trait'?
Note: These are also 'micro-level' theories because they focus on the INDIVIDUAL
These are the two overall branches of theories that concern individual - level delinquency
What is 'relative deprivation'?
This condition is said to occur in socially disorganized areas where wealthy people live in close proximity to persons in poverty or low economic status
What is early onset of delinquency?
According to the Gluecks, this is a major predictor of a delinquent career
What is a GAL - Guardian Ad Litem?
Individuals in this role are generally only seen in juvenile courtrooms in cases involving abuse and neglect
What is 'specific deterrence'?
This type of deterrence focuses on repeat offenders
What is personality?
This term refers to the stable patterns of behavior that distinguish one person from another
What is 'conspicuous consumption'?
This theory concerns the purchase and use of material goods to advance or maintain one's social status
What are 'career' and 'marriage'?
According to Sampson and Laub, these are two major life turning points that have the ability to reduce or nearly eliminate delinquent behavior
What is MORE?
Juvenile court judges have _______________ responsibilities than adult criminal court judges
What is cognitive?
This psychological perspective focuses on the information processing component of the juvenile
What are interpersonal interactions, community ecological conditions, social change, socioeconomic status and racial disparity?
These are the five sociological factors that are believed to cause or affect delinquency
What are parental efficacy, family relations, peers and school?
These four elements have a major effect on the socialization process of a child
What are 'circular reasoning,' 'personality disorder,' 'racial and gender differences,' and 'people change and so too does their self-control'?
These are two major criticisms of the General Theory of Crime
What is CASA?
This is the organization that has the ability to look out for the best interests of a child in the system and is comprised almost solely of volunteers
What are extraversion and neuroticism?
According to Eysenck, these are the primary two traits associated with antisocial behavior
What are critical theories?
This group of theories within the sociological views on delinquency is often situated from a specific demographic perspective, i.e. gender-oriented, race-oriented, etc.
What is 'life course theory'?
This theory contends that disruptions in life's major transitions can be destructive and lead to later criminality
What is parens patriae?
This is the philosophy of the juvenile justice system
What is a disposition?
This term refers to a sentence given by the juvenile court
Who is Cesare Lombroso?
This individual theorized that some people are evolutionary throwbacks, not fully evolved and thus commit crime.
What are cultural values and socioeconomic conditions?
Social structure-oriented theories tie delinquency rates to these two primary things
What is 'latent trait theory'?
This theory argues that some individuals possess certain traits that increase their propensity to commit criminal acts or toward deviant behavior
What is 'downward'?
A recent _______________ trend has been observed in the number of cases in juvenile court (1997-2008)
States may not mandate that juveniles be sentenced to life without parole but may issue this sentence on a case-by-case basis/ discretionarily
Currently this is the status of the law regarding juveniles and life without parole (JLWOP)
What is 'they don't offer help until it's too late'? (Remember: many juveniles are given several chances in their first interactions w/ police prior to being detained; @ which point they may be eligible for these progs--but the programs are not designed f
This is a major challenge to diversion programs that exist for juvenile delinquents

CLJ 240 MT Rev SP15 Board 2 Juvenile Justice

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