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Learning Basics Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning More Operant Conditioning Other Ways of Learning
100
What is associative learning?
When we learn that events go together.
100
What are respondent behaviors?
Classical conditioning focuses on this type of behavior.
100
What is a reinforcer?
This is a consequence that follows a behavior and makes it more likely to reoccur.
100
What are superstitious behaviors?
These behaviors occur when we are randomly reinforced for doing something.
100
What is expectancy?
We learn ______, which shows that our thoughts about a reward's predictability influence our behavior.
200
What is a stimulus?
Anything that causes a response in someone.
200
What is an unconditioned response (UR)?
A behavior that is an unlearned natural reaction to a stimulus (e.g., drooling when you smell food).
200
What is positive or negative?
These words describe whether something was given or taken away that reinforces or punishes a behavior.
200
What is modeling?
Punishing children with aggressive actions, may teach them to use aggression when they have problems with others because of this type of learning.
200
Who is Albert Bandura?
This psychologist was the first to empirically study observational learning in children with a bobo doll.
300
What is cognitive learning?
Learning through observation or language.
300
What is extinction?
Occurs over time after the conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., food) and the conditioned response lessens.
300
What is shaping?
Skinner used this technique to teach animals, such as pigeons, unnatural behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the behavior he wanted them to perform.
300
What is a fixed-ratio?
When you receive a free gift every time you accumulate a certain number of shopping points, the store has you on a _______ reinforcement schedule.
300
What is intrinsic motivation?
Our desire to perform a behavior for its own sake, which may be more meaningful than a reward.
400
What is latent learning?
Type of learning that occurs without rewards or punishments; but will be displayed when there is an incentive to show it.
400
What is generalization?
When a conditioned response is elicited by a similar stimulus to the conditioned stimulus (e.g., a white bunny in the case of Little Albert who was conditioned to fear white rats).
400
What is fixed-interval?
This type of reinforcement schedule only occurs after a specified amount of time has elapsed and becomes predictable, so the individual tends to increase the behavior closer to the expected reward time.
400
What is negative reinforcement?
Parents who positively punish a child for bad behavior by spanking are likely continue spanking because of this.
400
What are mirror neurons?
It is believed that we have ______ which are activated by watching others and increases our empathic abilities.
500
What are biological predispositions?
These limit how easy or difficult a behavior is to learn, and can cause learned behaviors to drift toward instinctual behaviors.
500
What is spontaneous recovery?
When a conditioned response reappears after a period in which the response has extinguished.
500
What is a secondary reinforcer?
Money is an example of this type of reinforcer because it has to be learned that it is a good thing to have.
500
What is behavior suppression (or discrimination)?
Physically punished behavior is likely to reoccur in other contexts or outside of the punisher's awareness because of this.
500
What are cognitive maps?
We create these mental representations, which is evidenced in rats who learn mazes without external incentives.




PSY 101 Chapter 7

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