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Basics of Memory Encoding Storing Memories Retrieving Memories Forgetting
100
What is encoding?
The process of getting information into the memory system, often by rehearsal.
100
What is implicit (or nondeclarative memory)?
This type of memory includes automatically processed information, such as skills or conditioned associations.
100
What is the hippocampus?
The neural center responsible of the storage of explicit memories.
100
What is priming?
Activation (often unconsciously) of particular memory associations.
100
What is retroactive interference?
Occurs when new learning disrupts your ability to remember older information.
200
What is recognition?
A multiple choice test is an example of this type of memory measure.
200
What is explicit memory (or declarative memory)?
Memory that requires effortful processing, such as studying.
200
What is the basal ganglia?
Part that primarily processes procedural memory for storage.
200
What are retrieval cues?
Anchor points which help you remember information, usually associated with your surroundings.
200
What is anterograde amnesia?
An inability to form new memories.
300
What is working memory?
Our current term for active processing in short-term memory.
300
What is echoic memory?
Brief sound memory, which can last for about 3-4 seconds.
300
What is the amygdala?
When this brain structure is activated (as in flashbulb memories) memories seem to be stronger and more clear.
300
What is context-dependent memory?
The reason that if you learned information while scuba-diving, you do better on a test of the information if you took it while scuba-diving than on land.
300
What is encoding failure?
This occurs when we forget something because we failed to attend to what we read.
400
What is the Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage model?
The first memory model to include sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory stages.
400
What is deep processing?
Processing information by making it more meaningful to us; helps our retention.
400
What is Long-term Potentiation (LTP)?
Neural connections are strengthened after brief, rapid stimulation, which is believed to be the neural basis of learning.
400
What is mood-congruent memory?
The reason we might remember all of someone's bad qualities when we are mad at them.
400
What is the forgetting curve (or storage decay)?
Ebbinghaus' research result that demonstrates "if you don't use it, you lose it" fairly quickly.
500
What is the central executive?
Active processing in working memory is controlled by this.
500
What is the testing effect?
This occurs because we tend to remember things better if we quiz ourselves after learning something new.
500
What is memory consolidation?
The neural storage of long-term memories.
500
What is the Serial Position Effect?
The reason you likely remember the first few presidents of the US and the last few, but may have difficulty with the middle of the president list.
500
What are false memories?
Dr. Loftus warns against relying heavily on memory and eyewitness statements because of these.




PSY 101 Chapter 8

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