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What is microcytic?
A patient with an MCV > 100 has this type of anemia
What is decreased serum iron, decreased transferrin, increased ferritin?
As an intern on the Moffit Medicine service you admit a 60 year-old woman to the hospital because of shortness of breath likely due a complication of her severe rheumatoid arthritis. Her admission laboratory results reveal a Hct of 29% and a MCV of 74fL. You begin an anemia workup, beginning with iron studies. Which pattern of labs is most likely? In terms of serum iron, transferrin, and increased ferritin, her iron studies most likely represent this pattern.
What is sickle cell anemia?
A single nucleotide substitution in the hemoglobin beta subunit which causes the Hb to reversibly polymerize when deoxygenated is the pathophysiology of this anemia.
What is Vitamin K?
While many of the coagulation factors are made in the liver, Factors II, VII, IX, and X are unique in that they contain a post-translational modification of glutamate to form gamma-carboxyglutamate. This fat soluble molecule is essential to this modification.
What is normocytic?
A patient with an MCV between 80 - 100 may still experience this type of anemia
What is beta-thalassemia major ?
In this type of thalassemia, the beta globulin subunit is absent, and the alpha globulin subunit is in excess and precipitates in the bone marrow; this becomes evident a few months after birth when Hb F production declines.
What is a RBC?
This cell’s average life span is 120 days.
What is vWF?
Deficiency of this blood glycoprotein produced by endothelium, platelets, and subendothelial connective tissue is commonly associated with nose bleeds and heavy menses.
Serum Iron: low
transferrin: high
Ferritin: low
A 25 year-old previously healthy woman comes to your office complaining of fatigue and shortness of breath with exertion for the last several weeks. Further questioning reveals a history of regular and heavy periods. On physical exam you notice her conjunctiva look pale and she has a soft systolic murmur heard best at the right second intercostal space. You order some laboratory tests. Given her history and physical which lab values are most likely? (in terms of serum iron, transferrin, and ferritin)
What is the Direct Coombs Test?
In this test, The patient's RBCs are mixed with mouse antibodies against human immunoglobulin and complement and the agglutination is measured.
What is normal adult hemoglobin?
Two alpha-globin and two beta-globin subunits compose this type of hemoglobin
What is pica?
Characterized by a craving for unusual objects such as ice, metal, and dirt, this symptom is associated with iron deficiency anemia
What is Autoimmune hemolytic anemia - warm reacting antibodies?
If a direct coombs test comes back positive for IgG and C3 and C4, this is the most likely diagnosis
What is HbF?
This type of hemoglobin is predominant in the first 6 months of life?
What is perform work-up for occult GI Bleed?
A 78 year-old man comes to your office for a routine checkup. He has no complaints but on further questioning he admits that he has felt some fatigue and noticed weight loss despite eating his usual diet. On physical exam you find an elderly, somewhat cachectic (thin, wasting) man with pale conjunctiva. Lab tests are consistent with iron deficiency anemia. His last Hct from one year prior was within normal limits. This next step is crucial.
Oxidized hemoglobin precipitates in the RBC and causes phagocytosis by macrophages.
A 22-year-old college student is planning a trip to India. A week prior to his departure he begins a course of antimalarials. Several days later he presents to Student Health complaining of yellow eyes and fatigue. His labs are: Hgb 10g/dL, Hct 30%, MCV 87 fL and reticulocytes are 8%. The peripheral smear shows bite cells and RBC with Heinz bodies. His blood is direct Coombs test negative. What is the pathophysiology of his disease?
What is Fibrinolysis?
After a blood vessel is cut, a platelet plug forms to start the process of hemostasis. Formation of a platelet plug involves all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Adhesion
b. Degranulation
c. Aggregation
d. Fibrinolysis

RBCs and Their Disoreders

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