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Constitutional Underpinnings Voting and Representation Supreme Court Cases Government Funding Interest Groups
100
What is separation of powers
This requires each of the three branches of government to be independent of one another so that one branch cannot control the others
100
What is the three-fifths compromise
This was an agreement made at the Constitutional Convention that based representation and taxation on the number of free persons and three-fifths of all other persons.
100
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100
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100
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200
What are reserved powers
Powers set aside by the Constitution for the states or the people that are not delegated to the federal government
200
What is proportional representation
The number of representatives per state in the House is based on this concept
200
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200
What is an unfunded mandate
This is a situation in which the federal government enforces state or local actions, but does not provide the necessary funds to complete these actions. An example of this is the Clean Air Act of 1970, which set air quality standards for states, but did
200
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300
What is the supremacy clause
This clause is located in Article VI of the Constitution and declares that the Constitution, national laws and treaties are supreme over state laws, assuming that the actions of the national government are constitutional
300
What is the Virginia plan
This was an agreement made at the Constitutional Convention that based representation and taxation on the number of free persons and three-fifths of all other persons.
300
What is Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan Trust Co.
A landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that unapportioned income taxes imposed by the Income Tax Act of 1894 were direct taxes, and were unconstitutional because they violated the provision that direct taxes be apportioned
300
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300
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400
What is Shays' Rebellion
A series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers to block foreclosure proceedings. This event demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the Articles of Confederation and led to the formation of the Constitution
400
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400
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400
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400
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500
What is the unitary system
This clause is located in Article VI of the Constitution and declares that the Constitution, national laws and treaties are supreme over state laws, assuming that the actions of the national government are constitutional
500
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500
What is an unfunded mandate
This is a situation in which the federal government enforces state or local actions, but does not provide the necessary funds to complete these actions. An example of this is the Clean Air Act of 1970, which set air quality standards for states, but did
500
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500
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